Sustainable Wind Development

Developing tools and insights for sustainable development of wind energy to create a successful export industry, reduce cost and uncertainty, and resolve environmental and societal conflicts.

Work Package 5 is led by Rita V. D’Oliveira Bouman from NTNU and Roel May from NINA. Its focus areas are value chains, environmental impact and public engagement.

Anticipated results:

  • Circular value chain design
  • Nature-inclusive wind energy development
  • New forms of citizen participation
Rita V. D'Oliveira Bouman
Roel May

Hypothesis

Circularity, public engagement, and environmental design support sustainable energy transitions.

Methodology and research tasks

The role of Norwegian wind in the sustainable energy transition

Develop pathways examining the role of Norwegian WE to realize a low-cost, low-emission European energy supply by 2050. Investigate how industrial international circular value chains can be developed to support scaling from tens to hundreds of GW. Assess regulations, contracts and business models.

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

Assess multiple-stressor impacts of marine operations, quantify the ecological footprint of development, develop best regulatory practices and (international) Standards for (strategic) Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA).

Public engagement, participation, and controversy

Explore the institutional, industrial, legal, and material underpinnings of energy citizenship related to wind power. Investigate existing and developing new forms of wind power governance, planning and implementation processes, advancing principles of responsible research and innovation (RRI).

User case

People on offshore wind

User Case – FME NorthWind

Innovations

Main results from 2023

The role of Norwegian wind in the sustainable energy transition

  • PhD candidate working on
    • “Circular business development of offshore wind energy” – Pankaj Ravindra Gode (finishing)
    • “Catalysing an Industry: understanding the emerging US offshore wind market through a multi-scalar institutional perspective” – Julian Lahuerta (finishing)
    • “The impact of technological attributes, psychological factors, and personal variables on onshore and offshore wind energy acceptance in Norway” – Chrysi Danelaki
    • “A Revitalisation of the Energy Nation Norway?”– Birgitte Nygaard
  • SDG impact analysis from offshore wind development, combined qualitative literature and quantitative global value chain analysis (draft paper version ready)
  • Innovation-diffusion model that relates cost and technology learning data of the different components of an offshore wind farm, with the diffusion/uptake of wind offshore (draft paper version ready)
  • Workshop on developing scenario pathways

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

  • Above-water impacts: In 2023, we performed the second year of GPS-tracking of black-legged kittiwakes from the colony in Skudeneshavn on Karmøy. The results from the first year of tracking (2022) were presented at the EERA DeepWind conference in Trondheim in January 2023. They demonstrated the importance of the breeding status on the birds’ area use. Breeding status and whether the birds are incubating, rearing young, have fledged young or have lost eggs or chicks (failed breeders) therefore affect the exposure to potential threats from offshore wind energy developments. The results from analyses of the 2023 tracking data demonstrate that area use differed from one year to the next, and that the effect of breeding status differed between the two years. We aim to scientifically publish these results which demonstrate the importance of taking breeding status into account and to perform tracking studies over several years for environmental impact assessments of offshore wind energy developments.
  • Below-water impacts: A literature review of biological effects on marine communities in Scandinavian waters has been performed and is currently being finalised in a report. In collaboration with the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), NINA has taken eDNA samples at the Hywind Tampen area, functioning as a baseline, before construction start (see publications below). This will be followed up on in the coming years through the spin-off project WindSys (led by IMR).
  • Onshore impacts: The AviSite LCA-mapping application has been published online (see under Innovations below). Also, an MSc student has started analysing white-tailed eagle tracking data to study the effect coastal wind farms have on their movement patterns, and potential collision risks.
  • Mitigation options: SINTEF published a scientific paper with a review of four mitigation measures demonstrated in the field and a new patented concept, SKARV, based on active control (not yet tested). This work was also disseminated in popular media outlets (see below). Co-supervision of an NTNU specialisation project on the active control concept to mitigate collisions:
    • Title: Active Wind Turbine Control for Bird Strike Avoidance, Author: Aurora Åsgård Pedersen
    • Supervisors: Prof. Lars Struen Imsland, Kiet Tuan Hoang, Paula Bastos Garcia Rosa
    • TTK4550 – Engineering Cybernetics, Specialisation Project, Department of Engineering Cybernetics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • Integrated siting tool: The ConSite tool has been established in a new cloud repository in NINA’s Google Enterprise. So far, further development of the ConSite Wind web app includes additional maps, preference weights and new functionality to support a traffic light planning approach. The beta version is now operational. Development of the Online data catalogue is in progress.
  • The PhD student working on “Life-cycle options for ecological restoration: construction to decommission” has started drafting a literature review on the topic which will be finalised in 2024.

Public engagement, participation and controversy

  • PhD candidate working on “The framing of Norwegian wind energy futures – the cases of Svalbard and Sørlige Nordsjø II” – Birgitte Nygaard

Publications

  • Skjølsvold, T. M., Heidenreich, S., Henriksen, I. M., Oliveira, R. V., Dankel, D. J., Lahuerta, J., … & Vasstrøm, M. (2024). Conditions for just offshore wind energy: Addressing the societal challenges of the North Sea wind industry. Energy Research & Social Science, 107, 103334.
  • Skjærseth, J. B., Hansen, T., Donner-Amnell, J., Hanson, J., Inderberg, T. H. J., Nielsen, H. Ø., … & Steen, M. (2023). Wind Power Policies and Diffusion in the Nordic Countries: Comparative Patterns. Springer Nature.
  • Oliveira, R. V. (2023, October). Whispers in the Wind: Ethical dimensions of social conflict in offshore wind. In Journal of Physics: Conference Series (Vol. 2626, No. 1, p. 012070). IOP Publishing.
  • Utne-Palm, A.C., Søiland, H., Sveistrup, A., Renner, A., Ross, R., Moy, F.E., Paskyabi, M.B., Totland, A., Hannaas, S., de Jong, K., Gonzalez-Mirelis, G., Hovland, T., Pedersen, G., Wilhelmsen, J.F., Majaneva, M., Heum, S.W., Skjold, W., Vågenes, S., Skaret, G., Corus, F., Voronkov, A., Kielland, L. 2023. Cruise report Hywind Tampen 13 to 28 March 2023 – Cruise no. 2023001004 G.O. Sars. TOKTRAPPORT No.10 2023.
  • de Jong, K., McQueen, K., Hareide, N.R., Tenningen, M., Macaulay, G., Majaneva, M. 2022. Fisheries survey in the offshore wind power field Hywind Tampen before development. TOKTRAPPORT Nr.15 2022.
  • A blog post about the SKARV concept was published on the SINTEF blog: How can control engineering save birds in wind farms? – #SINTEFblog.
  • An article about the SKARV concept was published in Gemini (both in Norwegian and English): Vindturbiner endrer fart for å unngå fuglekollisjoner (gemini.no).
  • Garcia-Rosa, P.B. and Tande, J.O.G. 2023. Mitigation measures for preventing collision of birds with wind turbines. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2626: 012072 – IOPscience

Previous results

The role of Norwegian wind in the sustainable energy transition

  • PhD candidate working on “Circular business development of offshore wind energy”➔ Pankaj Ravindra Gode.
  • PhD candidate working on “Harnessing Norwegian maritime industrial capabilities in the emerging US offshore wind industry” ➔ Julian Lahuerta
  • A preliminary SDG impact analysis (poster presented at the Annual Innovation forum), combined qualitative literature and quantitative global value chain analysis
  • Started developing a quantitative innovation-diffusion model, that relates cost and technology learning data of the different components of an offshore wind farm, with the diffusion/uptake of wind offshore. Here, we have the theoretical model implemented with some (partly dummy) data. In 2023, we’ll collect information from industry.
  • Outlined a qualitative SDG-interlinkage study: presented at the Annual Innovation forum, where we started recruiting experts for the focus group activities for 2023.

Public engagement, participation and controversy

  • PhD candidate working on “The framing of Norwegian wind energy futures – the cases of Svalbard and Sørlige Nordsjø II” ➔ Birgitte Nygaard
  • Workshop with FME NTRANS on the Norwegian wind power controversy

Compilation of the interface of ConSite Wind.

ConSite Wind: Consensus-based siting analysis toolbox for onshore wind energy development.
 

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

  • Above-water impacts: The work in 2022 was linked to design and preparations for applying for a permit from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority for year-round tracking of gulls (GPS precision, harness-mounted equipment), as well as the processing of tracking data of kittiwakes from Skudeneshavn/Karmøy.
  • Below-water impacts: A literature review of reef effects for Scandinavia has been performed and is currently being finalised in a report. NINA has established collaboration with the Institute of Marine Research for taking eDNA samples at the Hywind Tampen area before construction starts; this will be followed up on in the coming years through the spin-off project WindSys.
  • Onshore impacts: The AviSite LCA-mapping application has been developed, and is currently undergoing internal testing.
  • Mitigation options: SINTEF performed a review of existing technology for bird detection and systems to prevent bird collisions. This has been published in a report “Review of technology for bird detection and collision prevention“.
  • Integrated siting tool: The ConSite tool has been established in a new cloud repository in NINA’s Google Enterprise. So far, further development of the ConSite Wind web app includes additional maps, preference weights and new functionality to support a traffic light planning approach. The beta version now operational. Development of the Online data catalogue is in progress.
  • Two PhD candidates were hired in 2022 that will focus their work on “Improved legal framework for impact assessment of wind parks” and “Life-cycle options for ecological restoration: construction to decommission”, respectively.

 

Publications

  • Journal paper: Afewerki, S. and Karlsen, A., 2022. Policy mixes for just sustainable development in regions specialized in carbon-intensive industries: the case of two Norwegian petro-maritime regions. European Planning Studies, 30(11), pp.2273-2292.
  • Book chapter: Banet, C., 2022. Energy Planning Legal Requirements and Offshore Wind in Norway. In Fleming, Ruven; de Graaf, Kars; Hancher, Leigh & Woerdman, Edwin (Ed.), A Force of Energy – Essays in Energy Law in Honour of Professor Martha Roggenkamp. University of Groningen Press. ISSN 9789403429533. p. 191–203.
  • Report: Garcia Rosa, P.: Review of technology for bird detection and collision prevention.

The role of (Norwegian) wind in the sustainable energy transition

  • PhD candidate working on “Circular business development
    of offshore wind energy”.
  • PhD candidate working on “Harnessing Norwegian maritime industrial capabilities in the emerging US offshore wind industry”.

 

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

Multiscale wind modelling:

  • Above-water impacts: In 2021, work has been done on the design and preparations for applying for a permit from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority for year-round tracking of gulls (GPS precision, harness-mounted equipment).
  • Below-water impacts: A literature search process for a review of reef effects for Scandinavia has commenced. NINA has established collaboration with IMR for taking eDNA samples at the Hywind Tampen area before construction starts; this will be followed up on in the coming years.
  • Onshore impacts: The proposed AviSite LCA-mapping application has been presented at the Innovation Forum in 2021. The actual development will be done
    in 2022.
  • Integrated siting tool: In 2021, the initial planning of the app design and system environment was done. A new cloud repository was established in NINA’s Google Enterprise. The mapping of relevant map layers and configuration of workflows will be done in 2022.

 

Public engagement, participation and controversy

  • PhD candidate working on “The framing of Norwegian wind energy futures – the cases of Svalbard and Sørlige Nordsjø II”.
  • Workshop with FME NTRANS on the Norwegian wind power controversy.

 

Publications

  • Journal paper: Afewerke, S. & Karlsen, A. (2021). Policy mixes for just sustainable development in regions specialised in carbon-intensive industries: the case of two Norwegian petro-maritime regions. European Planning Studies 2021.
  • Book chapter: Banet, C.: Energy planning legal requirements and offshore wind in Norway.

 

Example of online interface of the AviSite application
AviSite: Online application for assessing life cycle impacts on avian diversity for siting of offshore wind farms.