Sustainable Wind Development

Developing tools and insights for sustainable development of wind energy to create a successful export industry, reduce cost and uncertainty, and resolve environmental and societal conflicts.

Work Package 5 is lead by Marianne Ryghaug and Rita V. D’Oliveira Bouman from NTNU, and Roel May from NINA. Its focus areas are value chains, environmental impact and public engagement.

Anticipated results:

  • Circular value chain design
  • Nature-inclusive wind energy development
  • New forms of citizen participation
Marianne Ryghaug
Rita V. D'Oliveira Bouman
Roel May


Circularity, public engagement, and environmental design support sustainable energy transitions.

Methodology and research tasks

The role of Norwegian wind in the sustainable energy transition

Develop pathways examining the role of Norwegian WE to realize a low-cost, low-emission European energy supply by 2050. Investigate how industrial international circular value chains can be developed to support scaling from tens to hundreds of GW. Assess regulations, contracts and business models.

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

Assess multiple-stressor impacts of marine operations, quantify the ecological footprint of development, develop best regulatory practices and (international) Standards for (strategic) Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA).

Public engagement, participation, and controversy

Explore the institutional, industrial, legal, and material underpinnings of energy citizenship related to wind power. Investigate existing and developing new forms of wind power governance, planning and implementation processes, advancing principles of responsible research and innovation (RRI).

Main results from 2021

The role of (Norwegian) wind in the sustainable energy transition

  • PhD candidate working on “Circular business development of offshore wind energy”.
  • PhD candidate working on “Harnessing Norwegian maritime industrial capabilities in the emerging US offshore wind industry”.

Environmental impacts and options for environmental design

Multiscale wind modelling:
  • Above-water impacts: In 2021, work has been done on the design and preparations for applying for a permit from the Norwegian Food Safety Authority for year-round tracking of gulls (GPS precision, harness-mounted equipment).
  • Below-water impacts: A literature search process for a review of reef effects for Scandinavia has commenced. NINA has established collaboration with IMR for taking eDNA samples at the Hywind Tampen area before construction starts; this will be followed up on in the coming years.
  • Onshore impacts: The proposed AviSite LCA-mapping application has been presented at the Innovation Forum in 2021. The actual development will be done in 2022.
  • Integrated siting tool: In 2021, the initial planning of the app design and system environment was done. A new cloud repository was established in NINA’s Google Enterprise. The mapping of relevant map layers and configuration of workflows will be done in 2022.

Public engagement, participation and controversy

  • PhD candidate working on “The framing of Norwegian wind energy futures – the cases of Svalbard and Sørlige Nordsjø II”.
  • Workshop with FME NTRANS on the Norwegian wind power controversy.


  • Journal paper: Afewerke, S. & Karlsen, A. (2021). Policy mixes for just sustainable development in regions specialised in carbon-intensive industries: the case of two Norwegian petro-maritime regions. European Planning Studies 2021.
  • Book chapter: Banet, C.: Energy planning legal requirements and offshore wind in Norway.
Example of online interface of the AviSite application
AviSite: Online application for assessing life cycle impacts on avian diversity for siting of offshore wind farms.
Compilation of the interface of ConSite Wind.
ConSite Wind: Consensus-based siting analysis toolbox for onshore wind energy development.