Computer-generated image of code, overlayed with abstract designs.

Two HAM approaches: the NIROM and COSTA

The main innovation has been the development of the two HAM approaches: the NIROM and COSTA. These methods have demonstrated high accuracy, computational efficiency, and the ability to model the unknown while utilising existing knowledge to the maximum extent. Consequently, they are seen as powerful enablers for digital twin applications. Without this new family of models, realisation of realistic digital twins is challenging. TRL 2-3.